Copyright statements and law

advertising, app design, design, Digital Art, Research, U62_U63

Copyright laws are different in every country, but the copyright law that started in the UK came from the concept of common law; the Statute of Anne 1709. It became statutory with the passing of the Copyright Act 1911. The current act is the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

Copyright covers the rights of artists, designers, authors, photographers, musicians, film-makers and performers. When a creator creates a piece of work, it will automatically have a form of copyright to it because it is their work. Depending on what medium you are producing with, the way you choose to handle your work may vary. For example, a painter would sell their painting but keep the rights to reproduce it but an illustrator would sell or license the copyright to their work and keep the original.

Copyright in the UK is automatic and usually lasts the creator’s lifespan and generally continues on for 70 years after their death. Some exceptions include forms of media broadcasts and recordings that are only able to be protected for 50 years after their first year of publication, and presswork arrangements that are only protected for 25 years after their first year of publication. Unregistered design right or unregistered copyright properties in the UK only lasts 15 years after the first prototype or sketch, and only 10 years from when the item is first marketed.

You are your own copyright unless you are an employee for a company or brand. In that case, it is usually the employer who owns the copyright to your work related creations. If you are self employed, it is worth being extra careful when taking on client commissions and contracts in order to avoid accidentally giving the customer more rights than you are prepared to give. It is also worth archiving your work as well as saving drafts, sketches, photographs, plans, source materials or models – anything to prove that you created the original piece of work and help defend yourself against any allegations of copyright from other creators, businesses and even art thieves.

If you want protection for something that involves making new material such as recipes, formulas and novel inventions then you can apply to register for a patent. If your invention is still under development or needs finalising but you still wish to discuss it and display it, then patents can come in handy to help protect your work whilst it’s being worked on. Until this idea or invention has been filed through the first stages of it’s patenting process known as the ‘initial application’ for at least one year, you should not share or exhibit your work openly to any third parties. A granted patent can last up to 20 years.

Branding and product names can initially be protected by the ™ (trademark) symbol. This symbol indicates that you are using this name for business and marketing purposes. If you want full protection, you must register your trademark name at the Intellectual Property Office (IPO).


Journey Game Trailer Analysis

3D, 3D Animation, advertising, Animation, U8_U52, U_5


The game Journey has been a favourite of mine ever since I saw the trailer for it in 2012. The visuals were just so stunning and it was so beautifully atmospheric. It inspired me with my own 3D animation – not so much in mood and tone, but in style and visuals. Although my trailer would be more up-beat in terms of editing due to it’s duration, I think the design and cinematography still holds some visual similarities to that of Journey’s.

The trailer begins with a very gradual reveal of the desert sand, building up the mood and setting up the overall pacing of the game to the audience – it’s slow, yet purposefully so to fully take in exactly what your seeing; rich cinematography. The intro of the cello is low and mysterious, adding curiosity and keeping the interest going until the rest of the music queues in and the scene changes. The cuts in-between the opening credits of the sun slowly move out really set up well for the first establishing shot of the desert. In the distance, a small figure is seen slowly moving towards the sun. Then there’s a cut to a slightly closer long shot of said figure, and we see that this is the main character who we play in the game. The transition from the cut beforehand that helped introduce this character ever so slightly really flows naturally into this scene, and really helps establish clearly to the viewer who this figure is whilst maintaining the ambiance perfectly.

As the trailer continues, we see the character going through the game, revealing bit by bit certain elements and levels. The beautifully minimalistic visuals and composition maintain their standards and peak in quality as certain parts of the game are shown. Game play elements such as multiplayer mode are suggested as the character meets another character of the same design in a very cinematic over-the-shoulder shot. The two are then shown to walk through the game together as a possible team or duo. What I really like about this trailer is how it presents the nature of the game’s style. Blending heavily muted and suggestive game play with a feature film’s cinematography so naturally makes for a really captivating viewing experience.

The main focus of the trailer is not so much on the players themselves, but much more on the environment and scenery in which that player is playing in. The majority of the shots (save for the opening few,) are long, wide establishing shots that boast the game’s world building. And good thing it does – because it’s really, really breathtaking. And that’s arguably the selling point of this game, so the fact that the editors have taken every opportunity to show it off was a good move in my opinion. And of course, at the very end the title is seamlessly blended in with the pre-existing shot, ending the introduction of Journey fittingly and smoothly.

App Design Inspiration – Brosmind

advertising, app design, design, Digital Art, mobile, Research, U62_U63, U_5

Brosmind is a freelance illustration studio based in Barcelona and is comprised of two Spanish brothers – Juan and Alejandro Mingarro. Their work has been commissioned by many commercial clients for all sorts of things; from posters and flyers, to food packaging designs, to snowboard designs and icons. They’ve also worked on music branding, video and animation as well as other forms of media. Although their skill set stretches to so many various areas of illustration and graphic design, Brosmind’s design and style remains impressively consistent throughout.

Brosmind’s designs consist of colourful, fun and rounded characters and objects that twist and interact with each other to present an idea or conform to the overall shape of the image. Their combination of interesting composition and quirky ideas mixed with a stylish and playful art style really grabbed my attention. It’s simplistic, yet still manages to grasp so much detail but not overwhelmingly so. Brosmind’s use of space and shape is also very imaginative; they really know how to mold and shape their illustrations by playing with the dimensions of things. They often break reality and realistic proportions in favour of style, which adds even more to their funky and zesty aesthetic.

Artist Research – Type Art Book Sleeve

advertising, Book Sleeve, design, Research, U_5

Enter a caption

Edward Ruscha was born on December 16, 1937 and grew up in Omaha, Nebraska. In 1956, Ruscha moved to Los Angeles and went to the Chouinard Art Institute. His early paintings was widely recognised as a part of the 1960s Pop Art movement and has helped influence many other later movements such as Dada, Surrealism, and Abstract Expressionism. His work includes paintings, prints, drawings, photography, and films. He now lives and works in Los Angeles.


Ruscha’s work takes an interesting and intriguing perspective on typography and type-based art. His work often engages in 3-dimensional viewpoints, reaching out to the viewer and offering a rather introspective angle to the eyes that quite literally stand out. His diversity in creatively displaying text creates a wide range of unique pieces. From pensive messages and quotes in simple, sans serif fonts – to complex and less literal displays of single worded pieces. His use of minimalistic composition and simple but effective use of colours and contrast brings an edge to his typography. His skilful use of traditional mediums adds a special texture to his modern work, subtly adding to it’s character and style.


Dana Tanamachi is a Brooklyn based graphic designer who specialises on hand-lettering and custom made typography. Her work is mostly commissioned for a wide range of editorials and advertisement, as well as for fashion, food and lifestyle branding. She studied Communication Design at the University of North Texas before moving on to work under the well-known graphic designer Louise Fili in New York. Tanamachi is responsible for many advertising designs as well as magazine covers and book covers.

Her decorative chalk style is very illustrative. Tanamachi uses a range of lettering styles; from loose, curly strokes to ridged serif fonts, her ability to compose clever and effective layouts while emphasising on key words is both a creative and recognisable characteristic. She highlights various phrases and words by enlarging them and changing their colours to make them stand out. Tanamachi also has a way with framing her type and adding additional drawings around her work to make it presentable and attractive – both as a piece of graphic design and promotional text.


Promotional Flyers Brief: Evaluation and Comparison

3D Design, advertising, design, Digital Art, Evaluation, promotional flyers, Research, U34_U51

fantasy staff promotional flyer 3

What initially sparked my interest in creating a fantasy product to advertise about was simply the fact that I was given permission to create something that wasn’t necessarily real already. This made me really excited as to what I could possibly imagine and model to life in Cinema4D. I decided to go for something a little impossible, a little fantastical – so I took inspiration from various games and movies about what kind of item I wanted to model. I ended up choosing a magic staff because I could see that many staffs had the basic shape of an elongated cylinder integrated into its form and shape, which was something that I knew I could start off with and build upon in Cinema4D. I turned to various 3D models in some RPGs (Role Playing Games) such as Runescape, Maplestory and Final Fantasy. I loved the intricacy and detailing that went into the models and I wanted to emulate some of that in my product.

Initially I started brainstorming different designs for my fantasy staff in my sketchbook. I had a thorough browse online to get inspiration as to what intricacies I should make. I went from robust and symmetric designs with smooth metal or rough rock textures, to more organic and nature orientated designs with materials such as wood and crystals. In the end, I went for something more natural and fairy-like because I really wanted to make something whimsical with glowing elements to emphasise on the themes of magic and fantasy.

The final design came out fairly accurately. When I started building the staff in Cinema4D, I knew that I wouldn’t be able to completely recreate my sketches entirely with my then beginner level of 3D modelling. But thanks to the help and feedback I received from peers and mentors, I quickly learnt how to apply more advanced techniques to really nail the specific shapes and contours of my complex design. Because my final design has embodied many irregular curves and edges, I couldn’t really use most of the basic shapes to help apart from the starter capsule shape for the staff’s handle. Discovering how to sculpt in Cinema4D was a real lifesaver, and I could actually model every section of the staff precisely to give the impression of raw, unprocessed wood – which was exactly what I had in mind.

One of the things that I think I could have included would be to have one of my final designs have a person modelling with the staff. I think it would have been very interesting to see how I would have been able to composite the 3D image into the hand and how I would have Photoshopped it to look realistic. A lot of advertisements do this to show the functionality of the product, and it’s generally a great way of showing the practicality of the product.

However, promotional flyers with just a scenic background can also help say something about the product without having to necessarily demonstrate its use specifically. A good example would be almost any car advert out there. Cars are commonly 3D rendered and composited into photographic environments, so it was a relevant reference to have for this project in terms of the creation process. In this case, the BMW car brand has an exceptional number of excellent examples of 3D compositing.

advertising comparison option 5

This advert for the BMW X6 for example, uses some very skilled and dynamic editing on both the background photo and the car itself. It’s a little difficult to tell whether or not the car in this image is actually real or 3D modelled – but I think it’s safe to assume that it was likely 3D modelled by either a team of professional 3D modellers, or commissioned from a professional 3D modeller. Either way, the texturing and rendering on the vehicle is incredibly detailed and photo-realistic. From the number plate and rubber wheel textures, to the accurate lighting and reflections.

There are many similarities with this professional advert and my final project outcome. For example clear sans-serif, white text is used in both our promotional flyers. My one being a little more elaborate in terms of the title font and styling simply because it had to somehow suite the magical fantasy elements of my flyer; more so than looking modern and sleek like the BMW car. Our products advertised completely different products with different themes after all.

The product information on the car advert is more lacking than mine. I can only assume that the image of the product itself would be enough to entice the audience into being interested in the product. With the car being complemented by a high-definition background photograph – slightly edited to meet the grey colour scheme and cool, adventurous mood of the overall design – it certainly gives a very contrasting and exciting impact on the viewer.

With my design, the background is less definite and more blurry and vague due to the bokeh effect. Yet at the same time, it also complements the 3D staff very well as it helps bring the staff to the forefront and puts more focus on the products details. The bokeh particles also resemble the light particles on the staff, making it quite suitable.

The orientation of the two adverts are also both horizontal. But, for different reasons and effects. The BMW advert is landscape to show off the stunning scenic background, as well as the shiny car on the right. My one is horizontal to simply have a place for the text, as well as being able to get a good close-up view of the staff’s head. Both landscape displays are effective, but enhance the design in different ways.

In the end, I think that I did a decent job with this project and I am pleased with the outcome. My choices in design and planning were well-thought out and appropriate to the brief’s requirements. The final design is similar to that of a professional’s, yet could still do with perhaps some more different approaches and routes of exploration.

Fantasy Staff Promotional Flyer: Design 3

3D, advertising, design, Digital Art, Photoshop, promotional flyers, U34_U51

For my third design, I chose a photo that I took by the coast from when I went location shooting.

This one in particular was really appealing to me because the sky and ocean horizon gave a sense of wonder and adventure. The strong sunlight also gave me the idea of having the staff as a silhouette against it.

Promotional Flyer Design 3 screenshot 1

I opened the photo into Photoshop and resized it appropriately with the Transform tool. I held down the Shift key as I did so to keep the proportions correct.

I copied and pasted my staff into the file and adjusted it with the Transform tool. I often used the Mac keyboard short-cut Cmd+T to transform things.

Then, I moved it so that it was placed directly in front of the light to create a sort of silhouette. I then edited the Eraser tool so that it was softer and erased the lower parts of the staff to give the illusion that it was standing in the grass.

Promotional Flyer Design 3 screenshot 2

Now that I had the staff and photograph in place, I adjusted the Brightness and Contrast to get a clearer image before moving on.

Promotional Flyer Design 3 screenshot 3

Then I applied some precise shadows to the staff to give a better sense of depth. I used the brush tool and worked a new layer that was set to Multiply.

I also right-clicked on the layer and selected Create a Clipping Mask so that everything that was drawn onto this layer would only show up on top of what was underneath it. This stopped the shadows from unnecessarily going outside of the staff.

Promotional Flyer Design 3 screenshot 4 STAFF SHADOW

After that, I moved onto making the highlights of the staff. Because of the light source behind it, I decided to give the staff a sort of halo effect by adding a simple large highlight over the entire staff on another clipped layer.

I used the Brush tool as a big airbrush and very carefully painted on top of the staff. I set the new layer to Linear Dodge (Add) to make the yellow look more luminescent against the staff background. Because the layer was clipped, the highlight only applied itself to the staff layer directly underneath it, leaving the rest of the photo unaffected.

Promotional Flyer Design 3 screenshot 5 HALO

Once I had completed the highlights, I also made a vignette shadow around the edge of the image to help with the text later on. Because I still wanted to use white coloured type, I had to make it clearer to read against the light blue sky in particular. So I added some shadows around parts of the image to help darken those areas and also to help make the direction of light more obvious. I lowered the layer’s opacity to make more subtle.

Once I was happy with the shadows, I added the text in. Because the mood and theme of this design was more brighter and lighter than the previous two, I decided to adjust the title font a little. I chose Cambria because of how clean and clear it was for a serif font. It matched the atmosphere of the sky behind it – plain and simple, yet still appealing.

Promotional Flyer Design 3 screenshot 6 TEXT

I didn’t add any glow or outline to it because it was already very bright and delicate, and also because it would ruin the simplicity and neatness of it.

Lastly, I added in the product details and logo at the bottom. The dark grass behind it made it easier to see than the sky above, so I didn’t need to do too much editing here.

Promotional Flyer Design 3 screenshot 7 LOGO

Here’s the final:

fantasy staff promotional flyer 2

Fantasy Staff Promotional Flyer: Design 2

3D, advertising, design, Digital Art, Editing, Photoshop, promotional flyers, U34_U51

I decided to make this one landscape to play around with the layout and composition. It made the overall design more interesting and allowed room for me to show a close-up of the staff’s main details.

I took the photo by a river originally, but I really liked the bokeh-styled photography and thought it would compliment my fantasy staff really nicely without overpowering the overall design too much.

I copied and pasted my fantasy staff in, this time with a close-up of the staff’s head so that there was more focus on the textures and details, rather than the overall shape and form.

Promotional Flyer Design 2 screenshot 1

I went in with the Transform tool again to position and resize the staff.

I adjusted the Levels on the overall image to give it some darker and more defined contrasts.

Promotional Flyer Design 2 screenshot 2

Then, I added a soft glow to the crystal gemstones on a couple of new layers set them to Linear Dodge (Add) and Soft Light. I adjusted the Brush tool to get a soft airbrush effect with a light lilac.

Promotional Flyer Design 2 screenshot 3

Promotional Flyer Design 2 screenshot 4 LIGHT PARTICLES

After finishing the image editing, I went on to add the text in. I used the same typeface as the previous design, keeping the glow on the title text to make it really stand out against the night sky.

I also changed the tagline so that it suited the context of this design more appropriately.

Promotional Flyer Design 2 screenshot 5 TEXT

I kept the product description and small print details the same to keep consistency.

Lastly, I inserted the branding and placed it in the corner of the flyer to not let it obscure the main design.

Promotional Flyer Design 2 screenshot 6 logo

Here’s the final:

fantasy staff promotional flyer 3

Fantasy Staff Promotional Flyer: Design 1

3D Design, advertising, design, Digital Art, Editing, Photoshop, promotional flyers, U34_U51

For my final promotional flyer design, I had to create three examples of it using Photoshop.

I used the .png files that I had saved from my previous post in Cinema4D and opened them in a new A4 Photoshop document.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 1

I used the Free Transform function to rescale the photo to fit the canvas. I also had to crop some edges off to frame it better.

I then did some basic adjustments on the on the photo before composing the .png file of my fantasy staff that I had saved in Cinema4D.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 2

Here I adjusted the Brightness and Contrast to make the photo a little clearer and more distinguishable.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 3

I then copied and pasted my fantasy staff into the document and used the Transform tool to scale, rotate and position it so that it looked like it was leaning against the side of the door.

Creating the shadow for the staff was a little tricky because using the Drop Shadow function would only make it look like it’s floating from the photo which was not what I wanted. So I ended up duplicating the staff layer and colouring it all black with the opacity locked. I then set the layer mode to Multiply and went to Filter –> Blur –> Gaussian Blur to soften the shadow.

I then went into Filter –> Liquify and made the brush large so that I could move areas of the shadow to make it look like it was on the stone wall around it.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 4 shadow

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 4 shadow 2

I used the Liquify tool to move the shadow so that it wasn’t sitting unnaturally against the background.

I then added the glow on the gemstones and the light particles surrounding it by creating a new layer and setting it to Lighter Colour. I then set the Brush tool to an airbrush setting and went in with a light aqua blue. I varied the opacity and size of the brush as a went along to give a feeling of depth.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 5

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 11 light particles

I then created a vignette border to bring more focus to the source of light coming from the product. I created a new layer and set it to Multiply and used a very large airbrush to go around the edges of the canvas. I lowered the opacity a little so that it wouldn’t be too obvious.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 6

After that, I played around with the overall Levels adjustment of the document to help bring more contrast and definition to the piece.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 7 Levels

Once I was happy with the composition, I added the text in. I wanted something that was modest, but modern to contrast the setting a little. I chose the colour white because it really stood out from the dark background, making it more easy to read.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 8 TEXT 2

I decided to have some fun with the product description and added some fantasy terminology from various MMORPG games that I had played in the past.

I gave the title of the product a glow to make it stand out even more. I also placed it at the top of the canvas to make sure that it was seen and read first in regards to the information hierarchy. The punchy tagline came next to help link the text to the related image.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 8TEXT

At the very bottom, I typed in a little small print and threw in a fake company logo to give the flyer cover a more realistic and professional presentation.

I had to start a new document to create the logo separately. I did some quick brainstorming on a piece of paper and stuck with a design to then re-create in Photoshop.

Here, I used various tools such as the Ellipse tool and the Path tool to create the wings. For the diamond, I just edited a regular square by using the Transform function. I made it black and white so that it would match the white text in the flyer and also not overpower the main features of the flyer.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 9 LOGO

I used the Path tool to create the shape of the wings and then right-clicked on the path to fill it in with white and stroke it with a black outline.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 9 LOGO 2

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 9 LOGO 3

I went for a simple, symmetric design. Not only was this design modest to the flyer design itself, but it also clearly presented its own symbols and shapes to give the idea of a modern, sleek and stylish brand.

After I finished creating the logo, I thought of a fantasy-esque company name and a fantasy typeface that wasn’t too obscure and added it to my promotional flyer.

I created the trademark symbol by going to the drop-down by the Rectangle tool and selecting the Custom Shape tool. From there, I could choose the trademark shape from the edit menu along the top of the window.

Promotional Flyer Design 1 screenshot 10

Here’s the final:

fantasy staff promotional flyer 1

Example of a Promotional Flyer – Lawn Mower

advertising, design, Digital Art, Editing, Photoshop, promotional flyers, U34_U51

I took one of my previous modified advertisements for the lawn mower and edited it so that it became a proper promotional flyer cover.

I first opened the previous image into Photoshop and began adding text with the Type tool. I chose the font Stencil because it really gave a rough and bold appearance that fitted with the rest of the design and theme.

advert text screenshot 1

After typing in the tag line, I added a dark but faded outline on it so that it would stand out from the busy background and become more readable.

advert text screenshot 2

I then added the rest of the promotional text in and edited them the same way to keep consistency. I based the text off of this product’s description as they’re both lawn mowers.

advert text screenshot 3

I then thought that the lawn mower was a little too dark and almost camouflaged within the background – so I created a new layer, set it to Linear Light and picked a light lime with the Brush tool and highlighted the product. I turned down the layer’s opacity to make it not too obvious.

advert text screenshot 4

I then created a dark border around the edge to reinforce the product and make the background less busy looking.

advert text screenshot 5

Again, I lowered the layer’s opacity to make it more subtle. I then saved the image as a .PNG once I was done.

lawn-mower-contrast advert