Extreme Close-up [ECU]
An incredibly close camera shot of the subject. The subject usually fills the entire frame.
A close camera shot of the subject. The subject takes up most of the frame, usually the head or face.
Medium Close-up [MCU]
Usually a camera shot that shows the head of the subject down to about the shoulders. Also known as a bust shot or shoulders-up shot.
Medium shot [MS]
A camera shot of the subject’s torso. Everything from the waist up is shown.
Medium Long shot [MLS]
Most of the subject is shown. The frame tends to cut off at around the knee area.
Long shot [LS]
All of the subject is shown – from head to feet.
Extreme Long shot [ELS]
The subject is shown from far away. This can be used as an establishing shot.
Also known as a Dutch shot, this camera angle is set at a tilt creating a sense of movement or surrealism in the scene.
3/4 Front View
3/4 Back View
A camera pan is usually when the camera turns on it’s y axis and films from point A to point B in a single turning motion.
A dolly is when the camera is moving back and forth on what is usually a stationary subject. There are cases where the subject is moving, but generally they are stationary. The camera can also zoom in as it is moving backwards to create a surreal zoom effect.
Tracking is when the camera is sliding along a track or moving along whilst capturing the subject in front of it at usually the same pace. Smooth tracking involves no track, but instead relies on one or two people to carefully walk with the camera to follow the subject. This is often used in chase scenes.
Tilt is when the camera starts tilting in one direction, and then moves to the opposite direction. For example, the camera could start tilting upwards to the top of a building, before tilting down to the bottom.
A pedestal shot is when the camera moves up or down, as if it were rising or lowering on a pedestal.